Museums and Art

What studies museology

What studies museology

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Of course, over thousands of years of its history, man not only created works of art, but also wrote books, music, and staged theatrical plays. And besides, he comprehended the laws of nature, studied animals and plants, built ships, mined minerals, carried on agriculture, erected buildings, sewed clothes, cooked food ... Finally, he just lived, relaxed, had fun, did sports.

But without interest in your past, whether it be the history of maritime affairs, musical instruments, typography, or the “genealogy” of the most ordinary button, without respect for the people who made these or other achievements possible, you cannot move on. Therefore, in addition to art, there exists in the world a great many other, very different museums. The ancient times of mankind, known to us from archaeological finds, are devoted to many “special” museums, for example, Greco-Roman antiquities in Alexandria or National Archaeological Museum of Madrid. A huge collection of ancient relics is also the London British Museum. Monuments of primitive society, cultures of Ancient Egypt, Babylon, antiquity are exhibited here ...

And in Berlin, on the famous Museum Island, there is also Pergamon Museum with his collections of objects of Ancient Babylon. In other expositions of the Museum Island, you can also get acquainted with Roman, Greek, Egyptian collections. It is here that one of the sculptural images of the famous beauty Nefertiti, the wife of Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, is stored. However, often historical antiquities can also be seen in art museums - say, in the New York Metro.

And indeed the purpose of many of the museums can not be determined in one word. In fact, what kind of museums include the Louvre or the Hermitage? Of course, to the art! But the most ancient monuments of art collected in them, for example Egyptian or Greek, tell about the history of these civilizations. So the Louvre and the Hermitage are historical museums? Of course ... In addition, the huge collection of Western European weapons of the Hermitage is a completely independent museum of military affairs.

And at the same time, ancient portraits of statesmen, commanders and paintings of the historical genre exhibited in the Moscow Historical Museum have unconditional artistic value. In addition, the frieze in the first hall of the museum, depicting everyday scenes from the Stone Age, was written by V. Vasnetsov. So, the Historical Museum is not only historical, but also art. And his collection of uniforms and banners can tell visitors about what fabrics were at different times and how they knew how to sew and embroider.

The situation is exactly the same with the famous Vatican Museums in Rome. Popes collected paintings and sculptures from century to century. In addition, many halls of the Vatican palaces are decorated with frescoes by great masters, including Raphael and Michelangelo. But at the same time, archaeological finds, porcelain, glass, tapestries, coins, seals, ancient carriages, gold and silver products, carpets, ancient geographical maps are also stored in the vast collections of Roman popes, and all this can also be seen today in the Vatican.

In a word, not every museum can be given an exact definition. Moreover, they have their own history: over time, new sections appear, which themselves can become new museums ... And yet museology divides all the museums of the world into certain groups, emphasizing their main attribute. Therefore, we are talking about museums of art, science, history, local history, memorial, literary, theatrical ...

Science museology

By the way, what is this such a science - museology, which is also called museology? It turns out that an important and necessary science, which includes not only history, but also the theory of museum business. After all, organizing an exposition of any museum, and even more so opening a new one, is not easy at all. Each room is a logically connected story about something, each next is a continuation of the story. The visitor should be interested; unexpected discoveries should wait for him all the time.

And you also need to know where to look for new exhibits for the museum. Determine which particular items are missing for a given meeting. And, of course, be able to keep collections so that they serve people in many hundreds of years.

Watch the video: Museum Studies at NIU (August 2022).