Museums and Art

What are museums

What are museums

Depending on the development of science, culture and production, new disciplines, spheres of culture and industry were constantly distinguished, which, of course, left a mark on their classification, namely, an increase in the number of profile groups. So what museums are? Museums are divided into specific, large groups, which can also be divided into subgroups in connection with a specific profile. Based on such classifications, several groups of museums can be distinguished.

Museums in which one can often see the documented history of mankind for all periods of its existence - from ancient times to our time, the history of a particular nation or era, or specialized in archaeological excavations, numismatics, and so on, are included in the group historical museums. As you know, in the 80s - 90s of the last century in the territory of the former Soviet Union there were about three hundred historical museums and two hundred of their branches. Even today, most often you can find precisely historical museums - this group is the most common.

On the territory of Russia there are approximately 120 museums with a military-historical orientation, 80 reserve museums, 26 ethnographic and over 15 historical-ethnographic, as well as architectural museums. More than half of the groups of museums related to the “historical” profile are united with similar museums around the world (the International Association of Museums of Military History and Arms at UNESCO or the Organization of World Heritage Cities OWHC).

IN art museums You can find different collections, documentation of the history of the development of art. The main goal of such museums is to satisfy the aesthetic needs of man. On the territory of the Russian Federation in the 90s there were about 350 such museums. The main subgroups are museums of national and foreign art, fine art (without a clearly defined national inclination), architecture, sculpture museums, decorative arts and crafts, and memorial museums.

You can meet creativity and historical information about both national and foreign writers and their works in museums of literary profile. In the last decade of the last century, there were about 150 in the Russian Federation. In the famous Literary Museum of Moscow, you can find the largest collection of works on the history of foreign and Russian literature on the territory of our country - more than 650 thousand books, both hand-written and first-printed, archives, funds of the famous creators of domestic literature, photographs, memorials and memorial items, audio recordings and video recordings. In addition, the museum has 10 branches.

If there is a need, get acquainted with the history of musical works, then you need to contact Museum of Music. This group combines both museums of the history of music and musical culture. Often you can find memorial complexes of famous composers. The largest in the Russian Federation is the Central Museum of Musical Culture. M.I. Glinka located in Moscow. There are about 770 thousand works in the main fund and 2 thousand in the additional scientific fund. Here you can find the archives of composers, some manuscripts, costumes and sets, muses. instruments, audio recordings and sheet music. Also available to you 5 branches of this museum.

Theater lovers have access to a whole branch of museums - theater museums. In addition to the main task, documentation of the history of the theater, this profile is divided into subgroups. Some of them are dedicated to the national theater, others to foreign; there are theaters that collect information about the history of this art form around the world. On the territory of the RSFSR there were more than sixty such museums, and an international center was created to coordinate the activities of this branch - the Association of Theater Museums and Libraries. Under her leadership, a guide was developed under the name "Theatrical collections of the world."

Thus, we familiarized ourselves with what museums are thereaccording to what principle they are divided into groups and subgroups and what direction of art is the main in a museum. We hope that our article was accessible and informative, and you could learn a lot from yourself.


Watch the video: Why do we have museums? - J. V. Maranto (October 2021).